Tag Archives: gcc

DPF Light Patch

This is meant for programmers or at least folks who understand coding in general. Here I am going to show how I implemented the DPF light patch, part of Diesel ECU Patch v1, on my former (Euro 4) car.
DPF Light Patch - Active Regeneration In Progress


Actual source code, updated to C++14:


// Copyright SubaruDieselCrew (2011-2017)   https://subdiesel.wordpress.com

#include <array>
#include <chrono>
//#include <bitset>
#include "sh.h"
#include "JZ2F401A.h"

using namespace std::chrono_literals;

/**
 * @brief DPF light flashing modes (stock)
 *
 */
enum class DPFLightMode {
    off = 0,
    /**
     * @brief soot-high warning aka vehicle speed request
     *
     */
    on_steady = 1,
    /**
     * @brief error
     *
     * (multiple causes: compulsory regeneration required, oil dilution critical, ash overfill, DPF limp-home mode;
     * see https://subdiesel.wordpress.com/2011/03/21/dpf-light/ )
     */
    flashing = 2,
};

/**
 * @brief time resolution (= CAN frame ID 0x600 interval)
 *
 */
const constexpr auto interval {50ms};
/**
 * @brief stock period for flashing mode is 800 ms,
 *        does not have to match stock here
 *
 */
const constexpr auto dpfLightPeriod {800ms};
/**
 * @brief defines DPF light output over time when active regeneration is on
 *
 */
const constexpr std::array<bool, dpfLightPeriod / interval> dpfLightCustomPattern
{
    1, 1, 0, 0,  1, 1, 0, 0,
    0, 0, 0, 0,  0, 0, 0, 0
};
// tested alternative: bitset; storage-efficient but much more lookup code
// const std::bitset<dpfLightPeriod / interval> bits {"1100110000000000"};

/**
 * @brief Implement custom flashing mode.
 *
 * Called every 50 ms (CAN-ID 0x600 interval)
 * from patched stock function "calcDpfLight".
 * Standard error flashing mode already handled by untouched
 * stock subroutine portion and this case this function won't get called.
 */
void calc_DPFLight_continue()
{
    // needed as original functionality has been overwritten for hook instructions
    if (DPFLightMode(*DPFLightModeEnum_b) == DPFLightMode::on_steady)
    {
        *DPFLight_bool = true;
        return;
    }

    // at this point DPFLightMode == DPFLightMode::off
    if (!*DPF_Regeneration_bool_SSM)
    {
        *DPFLight_bool = false;
        return;
    }

    // at this point active DPF regeneration is ON, do custom flashing
    // reusing DPF light counter var is safe
    auto counter = *DPFLightCounter_b;
    if (++counter >= dpfLightCustomPattern.size())
        counter = 0;
    *DPFLightCounter_b = counter;
    *DPFLight_bool = dpfLightCustomPattern.at(counter);
}



// Copyright SubaruDieselCrew (2011-2017)   https://subdiesel.wordpress.com
/*
	For stock ROM:
	Model	2009/2010 Impreza Turbo Diesel 2.0 6MT EDM 110 kW / 150 PS
	ROMID	6644D87207
	CID		JZ2F401A
	CVN		F5AD7142 FB841734
	PAK		22611AP283
*/

#ifndef JZ2F401A_H
#define JZ2F401A_H

#include "diesel_rom.h"

// RAM vars
static auto const DPFLight_bool = reinterpret_cast<volatile bool*>(0xFFFF9C1E);
static auto const DPFLightModeEnum_b = reinterpret_cast<volatile int8_t*>(0xFFFF9C1F);
static auto const DPFLightCounter_b = reinterpret_cast<volatile uint8_t*>(0xFFFF9C53);
static auto const DPF_Regeneration_bool_SSM = reinterpret_cast<volatile bool*>(0xFFFFB222);
…


SuperH disassembly using objdump which is part of GNU binutils. Binary had been generated by GCC.


void calc_DPFLight_continue()
c:  91 1d   mov.w   0x4a,r1 ! 9c1f
e:  60 10   mov.b   @r1,r0
10:  88 01   cmp/eq  #1,r0
12:  8d 17   bt.s    0x44
14:  71 ff   add     #-1,r1
16:  91 19   mov.w   0x4c,r1 ! b222
18:  61 10   mov.b   @r1,r1
1a:  21 18   tst     r1,r1
1c:  8d 0e   bt.s    0x3c
1e:  62 13   mov     r1,r2
20:  91 15   mov.w   0x4e,r1 ! 9c53
22:  e2 0f   mov     #15,r2
24:  61 10   mov.b   @r1,r1
26:  71 01   add     #1,r1
28:  61 1c   extu.b  r1,r1
2a:  31 26   cmp/hi  r2,r1
2c:  8f 02   bf.s    0x34
2e:  60 13   mov     r1,r0
30:  e0 00   mov     #0,r0
32:  e1 00   mov     #0,r1
34:  92 0b   mov.w   0x4e,r2 ! 9c53
36:  22 10   mov.b   r1,@r2
38:  d1 06   mov.l   0x54,r1 ! 945c0
3a:  02 1c   mov.b   @(r0,r1),r2
3c:  91 08   mov.w   0x50,r1 ! 9c1e
3e:  21 20   mov.b   r2,@r1
40:  00 0b   rts
42:  00 09   nop
44:  21 00   mov.b   r0,@r1
46:  00 0b   rts
48:  00 09   nop
4a:  9c 1f
4c:  b2 22
4e:  9c 53
50:  9c 1e
54:  00 09
56:  45 c0

5c0:  01 01   .word 0x0101
5c2:  00 00   .word 0x0000
5c4:  01 01   .word 0x0101
5c6:  00 00   .word 0x0000
5c8:  00 00   .word 0x0000
5ca:  00 00   .word 0x0000
5cc:  00 00   .word 0x0000
5ce:  00 00   .word 0x0000


As you can tell there is not much code required. Much more work, orders of magnitude (!), is necessary to reverse-engineer the related stock ROM portions in the first place, defining functions, disassembling machine instructions, naming local and global variables etc.

Usually, ROM and RAM addresses depend on the actual ROM version used. Above definitions work for outdated CID JZ2F401A (dated 2009-Sep). Apart from ROM specific variable addresses the same code will work for all known Euro 4/5/6 models.

Resultant binary data is meant to be inserted into a free unused ROM region. On Renesas SH microprocessors (i.e. SH7058S) free ROM space is rather easy to find – just look for big chunks of continuous FF-bytes. This is because those chips erase bytes to value 0xFF. Others, e.g. Infineon TriCore series, erase their internal flash ROM to zeroes instead.

To actually make use of the added logic, I had to modify (patch) a few bytes in the original calc_DPF_light subroutine, so that after doing some of its work it will call my own function, knowing its start address (0x9400C). Usually there is no free space in between stock functions, therefore we have to apply clever patching tricks to make room for a few new instructions and/or divert execution flow.

Finally, after carefully verifying the changes applied to the stock ROM, you have to correct checksums. Flashing software usually does this anyway, perhaps asking first. Checksum correction and verification is actually very easy to do for such Denso firmware.

Providing SDC-modified ROMs is possible, however will not be free due to amount of labour involved. Contact us if you’re interested.

Updates

  • 2017-04: minor update, actual disassembly
  • 2016-11: updated source to C++14
  • 2016-10: updated source to C++11 with Doxygen documentation
  • 2016-01: added disassembly
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ECU Coding: Ports v2

The engine control unit supports uploading code into RAM because that’s part of standard engine management software (ROM reflash) update procedure. I also use the transfer via CAN method as it is quite fast.
Actually, the ECUs stock firmware does not care about the uploaded bytes as long as generic conditions are met (max 12 KiB total size on diesels, checksum, …). That way you can abuse the system and do what you want. Did some relay/actuator testing lately, confirming some ports…

Tested ports

Valid for MY 2009/2010 Impreza Diesel Euro 4 only. Euro 5 models differ!

Port Type Function Comment
Port E
PE02 Out Radiator Fans both, low power
PE03 Out Radiator Fan left one only, high power
PE02 & PE03 Out Radiator Fans both, high power
PE11 Out Sub Fuel Pump noise originating from fuel tank area
PE12 Out A/C Compressor Clutch loud click noise, looking at pulley one can see clutch part move
PE14 Out MIL MIL
Port L
PL06 In Brake SW Almost same trigger point (pedal position) as stop light switch.
PL07 In Stop Light SW

I already knew those output ports from ROM analysis so it was rather safe for me to try them. Just reading any port is supposed to be safe.
Many are reversed, then bit ‘0‘ means ON and ‘1‘ is OFF.
The MIL is what I often use for debugging ECU code – e.g. flashing it to indicate some condition. Unlike most dashboard indications you don’t operate it using CAN messages (much more complicated).
However, ports can be model specific so one must be careful – i.e. might hit the starter with transmission not in neutral.

C/C++ Code snippet to test and operate a port


// Port E Data Register, from Renesas manual
#define PE_DR_w (uword*)0xFFFFF754
// Port L Data Register
#define PL_DR_w (uword*)0xFFFFF75E

// port bitmasks
const uword PE14_MIL = 1 << 14; // 0x4000
const uword PL06_BrakeSW = 1 << 6; // 0x40

void OperatePorts()
{
  for(;;)  // infinite loop
  {
    ToggleBits(PE_DR_w, PE14_MIL);  // toggle MIL
    uword pldr = *PL_DR_w;  // read Port L Data Register
    if ((pldr & PL06_BrakeSW) == 0)  // test bit
      Wait(100);  // Brake ON -> fast flashing of MIL
    else
      Wait(1000); // Brake OFF -> slow flashing, 1000 ms delay

    /* alternative, set (true) or clear bits (false):
    AdjustBits(PE_DR_w, PE14_MIL, true); // OFF
    Wait();
    AdjustBits(PE_DR_w, PE14_MIL, false); // ON
    Wait();
    */
  }
}

void ToggleBits(uword* address, uword bitmask)
{
  *address ^= bitmask; // XOR
}

Compilation

Questions: What software can I use to compile SuperH code? How much $$$?
Answer: Linux and utilities, all open source and free!

Free open source GNU compiler collection (GCC) can generate binaries for Renesas SH-2E, the microcontroller’s (e.g. SH7058S) CPU inside the engine control unit.
The beauty of GNU binutils plus GCC is, you can use the same toolchain to produce code for tons of different platforms1.
So same stuff I use for producing Intel/AMD PC x86/x64 software plus some platform specific command line options will do it. GCC is very powerful, supports multiple source code languages. (Personally, I even compile small Windows tools directly on Linux using winelib.)
Uploading a binary via CAN is another story but once it is automated, you don’t have to think about it, e.g. just run a make command…

1) Compiling binutils and GCC from source with target platform support enabled might be necessary. Default Linux packages usually have not been compiled with such special platform support enabled.

Display a list showing all architectures and object formats available for specification with -b or -m:
objdump --info